Jammu & Kashmir
Jammu & Kashmir
Stop Press: See the new 2005 photos of Azad Kashmir

Press Alert - A massive earthquake, measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale, struck close to Muzaffarabad, capital of Azad Kashmir on the morning of 8th October 2005. The earthquake caused mass devastation with great loss of life and property. Other areas including Balakot, Rawalakot, Bagh, the Jehlum Valley and Neelum Valley were also severly affected. Across the LOC, Baramulla, Uri and Tangdar were hit by the earthquake. Please help the victims of the earthquake by donating to recognised international relief agencies.
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Map of AsiaKashmir is an area on the northern borders of India and Pakistan; officially known as Jammu & Kashmir.

Kashmir is famous for its natural beauty and has often been referred to as the 'Switzerland of the East'. The heart of the area is the fertile Vale of Kashmir (known as The Valley), which lies between the Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Here the climate is mild and the soil well watered.

Kashmir covers an area of 222,237 SqKm (85,800 SqMi). Mount Godwin Austen/K2 (8,611m/28,250 ft) and mount Nanga Parbat (8,123m/26,650 ft) lie in Northern Kashmir.

The Indus river flows through Kashmir. The river Jhelum flows through the Vale of Kashmir. The mountains have much precious forests.

About 12 million people live in Kashmir, of which around 70% are Muslims. The rest include Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists. Hindus live mostly in the south and around the city of Jammu. To the east is the Ladakh region, where the majority of the people are Buddhists and of Tibetan origin. Most of the Kashmiri people work on farms. Others are engaged in small industries making shawls, rugs and carpets. Kashmir is well known for its wool and, in particular, its shawls and carpets.

Much of the farmland is under intense cultivation, producing corn, wheat, rice and saffron amongst other crops. Fruit and nuts are also produced in quantities including pears, apples and walnuts.


Kashmir has been the key to the dispute between India and Pakistan since their independence from the British in 1947. Each country claims Kashmir as a part of its territory. As a result of a rebellion in 1947 and the subsequent wars between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, the area is separated by a Line-of-Control (LOC or cease-fire line). To the east of the LOC lies the vale of Kashmir, Jammu and Ladakh which are administered by India. To the west lies the area now known as 'Azad [Free] Kashmir' which is governed by its own government with strong ties with Pakistan.

The capitals of Indian-held Kashmir are Srinagar in the summer and Jammu in the winter; whilst the capital of Azad Kashmir is Muzaffarabad.

Since 1989 the controversy over Kashmir has taken a violent turn in the valley; the Kashmiri people themselves have taken up arms against the Indian occupation. India is now deploying more than 700,000 troops in the valley to crush the Freedom Movement.

WARNING: Please note that the Kashmir Valley in Indian Occupied Kashmir is in a state of unrest. Travel in this area is very dangerous. You should seek the advice of your government before making any travel plans to Indian Occupied Kashmir.

A victim of Indian atrocities


The history of Kashmir has always been seen by the outsiders as a territorial dispute between two neighbouring states. No one remembers or entertains the fact that the Kashmiri struggle is all about the right of the Kashmiri people to self-determination.


(To read click on a section below or alternatively click a button in the top left hand margin)

Indian-Occupied Kashmir

Azad Kashmir

Details on the part of Kashmir under Indian occupation. This includes the Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Ladakh. Places of interest include Srinagar, Pahalgam, Gulmarg, Jammu and Kargil. Details of Azad Jammu and Kashmir which was liberated from Dogra rule in 1947. Places of interest here include Muzaffarabad, Kotli, Mirpur, Neelum Valley, Bagh and Poonch.

Historical Background

The problems

A brief historical overview of Kashmir from the 2nd Century AD to present day. What are the problems and the causes of conflict and unrest in Kashmir. Who is responsible.

India's False Claim on Kashmir


India maintains that Kashmir is an integral part of India based on the claim that the state was acceded to the Indian Union by the last ruler of Kashmir. How true is this claim. Weekly news on Kashmir focusing on socio-political events and coverage of the regular Human Rights abuses by the Indian forces.

APHC address to the UN

Reports on Kashmir

Address to the United Nations by Mirwaiz Mohammad Umar Farooq, Chairman - All Parties Hurriyet Conference (APHC). APHC is an umbrella organisation of pro-Freedom parties. Reports featured include: Press Reports on 1996 elections in Kashmir, INDIA'S SECRET ARMY IN KASHMIR by Human Rights Watch/Asia, USA Human Rights report etc.

United Nations Resolutions

Documents & Essays

United Nations Resolutions on Jammu and Kashmir starting with the first resolution, RESOLUTION 38 (1948) of 17th Januray 1948, right upto RESOLUTION 307 (1971) of 21st December 1971. Important documents such as the Simla Agreement, and the so-called Instrument of Accession. Other featured documents include papers from independent writers.

Charar-e-Sharief Shrine

London Demonstration

On May 10, 1995 Indian Armed forces desecrated and destroyed 14th century Muslim shrine of Sheikh Noorud-Din Wali, a patron saint of Kashmir in the city of Charar-e-Sharief in which 2,200 houses and shops were razed to the ground and 30,000 people were made homeless. London, 26th October 1996 - Thousands of Kashmiris, including hundreds of women and children along with the supporters of the Kashmiri cause, demonstrated against the five-decade long Indian occupation of Jammu and Kashmir and pledged to continue their struggle.

Catalog of Indian Atrocities

Refugee Crisis

A catalog of horror in Indian-Occupied Kashmir. The extent of torture, killings and rapes perpetrated on Kashmiri people by Indian forces are already creating new records. A catalog of the Indian occupation army's deviltry such as gang-rapes, burning of entire villages and crops, destruction of economic life of whole communities and genocide of the Kashmiri people. Thousands of people have been displaced from Kashmir. Many of the Pandit refugees are living in camps in Jammu and Dehli. Pro-Freedom refugees, driven out by the Indian forces, are living in camps in Azad Kashmir.

Kashmir Council for Human Rights

New Book

Kashmir Council for Human Rights (KCHR) is a humanitarian group which campaigns for the observance of internationally recognised human rights in Kashmir. The London based Council lobbies governments, media, human rights groups and the United Nations. KASHMIR: DESOLATION OR PEACE by Majid A Siraj. This timely, ambitious book, which challenges present and past political intentions, aims, and attitudes of Great Britain, India and Pakistan towards Kashmir. Exposing the scandalous brutality of past puppet regimes and despots in this natural paradise, the author exposes a present day tragedy in the making.
Internet Resources Photographs
Links to some of the other popular web sites on Kashmir, including Links to Kashmiri organisations. Links to mailing lists and newsgroups. A selection of photographs from Jammu and Kashmir.
Send Mail to the Author

This site is maintained by Gharib Hanif (hanif@gharib.demon.co.uk). Comments and suggestions always welcome.